A technique that enables biologically active enzymes to survive the rigors of inkjet printing presents a promising alternative to routine blood screening finger jabs for diabetic blood sugar levels. The KAUST-led team used this approach to make disposable devices that can measure glucose concentrations in human saliva.
Bioscientist Sahika Inal collaborated with electrical engineer Khaled Salama and materials scientist Derya Baran to use inkjet technology to produce sensors sensitive to small sugar concentrations in biofluids. The team printed microscale electrode patterns onto glossy paper sheets. Next, they printed a sensing layer containing an enzyme, glucose oxidase, on top of the tiny electrodes. The biochemical reaction between available glucose and the enzyme creates electrical signals easily correlated to blood sugar levels.
After optimizing the enzyme-printing conditions, the researchers had another obstacle to tackle. While fluids, such as sweat or saliva, contain enough sugar for monitoring purposes, they also contain molecules, such as ascorbic acid, that interfere electrically with conducting polymers. Coating the sensor with a nafion polymer membrane that repels the negative charges present in most interfering species enabled measurement of only the relevant glucose levels in saliva samples from volunteers.
Experiments showed the top coating gave the sensor an unprecedented shelf life—the enzyme could be kept alive and active for a month if stored in a sealed bag. These results are encouraging the team to expand the capabilities of this approach by incorporating different enzymes into the sensing layer.